Order by 12/19 for 12/24 delivery. (FREE shipping on orders $45 and over!)

famous females logo | Yellow Scope blog

REARRANGING GENES!

VARIATION IN OUR DNA

barbara mcclintock | Yellow Scope blog

You probably know that half of your genes come from mom, and half of your genes come from dad. But this isn't the only way we get our differences.

But why be different? Well, living things benefit from being different because it helps their species survive over time.

Maybe a bird species needs to have a differently shaped beak to get at certain seeds, or maybe a scorpion species needs to be able to withstand higher temperatures to live in a desert.

Imagine you and your friends are making toy block towers on a table, then someone comes and shakes the table you're working on, like an earthquake!

blocks | Yellow Scope blog Some of the towers would fall, but the more stable ones would stay standing.

Had you made them all the same, the quake could have wiped out all the towers. Like these toys, species need to be different so that some will survive changes to their environment.

Today's famous female is geneticist Barbara McClintock. She helped us to understand just how genes make us so different before we even knew the structure of DNA.

BARBARA McCLINTOCK (1902 - 1992)

barbara mcclintock | Yellow Scope blogBarbara McClintock was born at the turn of the 20th century in Hartford, Connecticut. She was originally named 'Eleanor', but her no-nonsense, independent nature convinced her parents that it was too feminine a name, and renamed her Barbara.

 

 

 

Her father was a doctor and her mother raised the kids and enjoyed art and poetry. Barbara and her mother had some uneasy relations however, which would show itself as Barbara grew. 

cornell balch hall | Yellow Scope blogIn high school, her teachers praised her intelligence and saw her becoming a college professor - an idea that horrified her mother who felt that professors were an odd bunch that would make her daughter unattractive to potential suitors.

Her mom forbid Barbara from going to college, but at the last minute her dad came to the rescue. Barbara enrolled and graduated from Cornell University in New York.

She took the only course in genetics available to undergrads, and afterwards got a call from the professor inviting her to his graduate level class. She reflected, "Obviously, this telephone call cast the die for my future. I remained with genetics thereafter."

A BETTER WAY TO 'SEE' GENES

Now, genes are very, very small - you have to have a microscope to see them. And even then, you have to dye them with a stain so that you can see their structures.

meiosis | Yellow Scope blogWell, McClintock developed a staining technique that was better than any before.

With it, she proved that genes are physically located on little threads called chromosomes

She also proved a previously suggested idea that sex cells (like sperm and eggs) actually swap genetic material when making new cells. It's called chromosome crossover.

This is when the chromosomes actually swap bits of themselves with each other, so that there's a whole new combination of genes on each one! Sort of like if teams swapped a few players before a new game - the game would have the same people overall, but each team would have a slightly different makeup.

COLOR IN CORN

indian corn | Yellow Scope blog
But this wasn't McClintock's big discovery. Before we tell you what that was, we should introduce an interesting plant - Indian corn!

Now, the kind of corn you're used to eating in the summer has some pretty uniform colors. Usually yellow or white. In Indian corn, kernels are different colors!

McClintock was studying one species whose kernels were sometimes white, sometimes purple, or sometimes mottled with purple streaks or spots. She wondered how this happened. 

corn kernels | Yellow Scope blogNow, corn is a great organism to use in breeding experiments because each kernel is an individual embryo produced from an individual fertilization.

That's great for scientists because they get a lot of genetic results from just one ear of corn. Instead of getting just one set of genes from one ear, you actually get about 800!

JUMPING GENES

Now, keep in mind that in the late 1940s, when McClintock was studying purple corn kernels at the Carnegie Institution of Washington, it was thought that genes didn't change much. They just stayed on their chromosomes and didn't move, right?
 

microscope and corn | Yellow Scope blogMcClintock though, using her staining techniques, was able to see that the chromosomes of a purple kernel were similar to the spotted kernel, with just a little difference. It looked as though someone had taken a bit of one chromosome and stuck it somewhere else.

Turns out, that's exactly what is happening. McClintock discovered that some genes are actually moving around, as if scissors had come to a strand of DNA, cut some out, and then glued it back in the middle of a different set of DNA.

When this happens in corn, this extra bit can land in the middle of the genes for color, which ends up affecting what color the kernel will be.

We call these moving elements transposons, or transposing elements, or  'jumping genes'.

Turns out this is in more than just corn. It happens in animals too, which of course, includes us. This was revolutionary! McClintock said,

"You can see why I have not dared publish an account of this story. There is so much that is completely new and the implications are so suggestive of an altered concept of gene mutation that I have not wanted to make any statements until the evidence was conclusive."

OTHER SCIENTISTS DON'T UNDERSTAND

barbara mcclintock | Yellow Scope blogMcClintock knew this was a big discovery - her most important yet. However, when she first presented it to other scientists in 1951, they didn't understand, and some even got a little hostile.

Disappointed, after a few years she stopped publishing papers on the subject altogether. She kept working though, she loved her job. She said, "I never thought of stopping."

It would take 20 more years before transposition was seen by some biologists in bacteria and viruses, and McClintock's work would be back in the limelight. Today we know that transposable elements make up over half of the human genome, and about 90% of the maize (corn) genome!

Acknowledged at last, Barbara McClintock won a Nobel Prize in 1983 for Physiology or Medicine. It just goes to show, if you know something and you have the evidence to back you up, don't give up! Everyone might just be too mind blown to see your genius and hard work just yet!


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Science Outreach Activity, Naukuchiatal, India | Yellow Scope blog

Acid or Base? (Aml or Kshar?):
An Outreach Activity in Naukuchiatal, India

by Yellow Scope Science Education Consultant, Meghna Pant

Working with Yellow Scope and volunteering as a science educator at Oregon National Primate Research Center has nurtured my passion for promoting science education. I have also come to realize that organizing hands-on activities to stimulate learning does not always require fancy lab equipment.

Living so far away from India, the home I grew up in, I also aspire to give back when I can. Thus, armed with scientific knowledge and few basic supplies, I decided to initiate some sort of outreach activity during my vacation in India this year.

When Kelly and Marcie heard about my plans, they generously donated a Yellow Scope Acids, Bases and pH kit along with extra supplies to support my cause. What unfurled was an enriching, as well as a humbling experience, for me. Read on to learn more about my outreach story.

Naukuchiatal, India | Yellow Scope blog

 

Science Where Science is Needed

Nestled in the mountains of the Kumaun region of Uttarakhand, India is a small village called Naukuchiatal. Its namesake lake is a prominent tourist attraction. Clean mountain air, lush green surroundings and pleasant summers make this a coveted place to escape to in an otherwise hot and humid Indian summer.


I am thankful for the day my parents decided to settle down in this village after retirement! Understandably, the factors that contribute to the beauty of this place – its isolation - also limit the educational and employment opportunities.

If families have the money, there are plenty of excellent residential and day schools scattered throughout the region. However, most families cannot afford these private schools. They rely on the affordable government schools, which are doing their best to educate the students, but would do even better with extra funding or other resources.

The educator in me decided to explore running a pilot science program at one of these government schools – Rajkiya Inter College, Naukuchiatal, for grades six to twelve.

Naukuchiatal | Yellow Scope blog

 

Support and Language Barriers

I knew I needed the support of the teachers if I wanted my small outreach activity and future projects to materialize. My father, a retired professor of electrical engineering, arranged for me to meet with the school principal and teachers.

I floated my idea of incorporating hands-on science activities in the classroom and proposed a set of acid-base chemistry experiments. They were very interested and we decided that the middle school students would benefit the most from this activity. The date and time were fixed and I came away from the meeting feeling encouraged and happy!

The preparation and execution of this outreach activity was more challenging than I initially thought – even with my PhD experience and writing curriculum for Yellow Scope. The language of instruction in this school was Hindi, which is  the official language of India. Even though I grew up in North India and speak Hindi at home, I have never studied science in Hindi.

In school, I studied science in English, and while this helped me easily transition to grad school in USA, it’s a little embarrassing when I view it from a cultural perspective. I had to look up what Acids and Bases are called in Hindi. Acid = “Aml (um-la)” and Base = “Kshar. These two words have now possibly become two of my favorite words in Hindi.

Questions and Excitement

Around 50 unsuspecting children waited for me in the practical lab. They had no idea why they had been called away from their normal classes, but I am sure they were happy about it. There were almost equal numbers of boys and girls in the class. While the teachers explained to the students why I was there, I prepared the samples to test for aml and kshar.

Science Outreach Activity, India |Yellow Scope blog

Before starting the experiment, I did a quick background knowledge check. “Do you know what Aml is?” Few answered, “It taste sour”! “What about kshar?” “It tastes bitter!” “But, how can you tell them apart without tasting?” No answer. “Well, I will show you how you can tell them apart using color changes!”

Science Outreach Activity, India | Yellow Scope blogInterest, amusement and curiosity - I saw it all on their faces. These students had never before done any hands-on science experiments!

I demonstrated how lemon juice turns pinkish-red when you add red cabbage powder solution to it. They were amazed to see that the white laundry detergent turned greenish-blue on reaction with red cabbage solution.

However, I think the thing that piqued their curiosity the most was the red cabbage itself! They took my word for it that cabbages in the United States can be red in color; in India they are only green!

I had foreseen this problem (not being able to buy red cabbages in India for future experiments) and prepared another pH indicator from a kind of black bean, locally known as “bhatt”. This indicator turned pinkish red when mixed with acids and brownish-green when mixed with bases.

The Kids' First Science Experiment

We divided the students in groups of five and set them up with a 6-well plate and a dropper pipette. The wells of the plate contained vinegar, lemon juice, laundry detergent and window cleaner. I went around with the pH indicators (red cabbage juice and bhatt juice) and asked every student to add indicator to one of the wells using the dropper pipette. Then I asked them to tell me what they had aml or kshar -  acid or base?

Black Bean pH indicator | Yellow Scope blog

By the end of the activity, the whole room was filled with the words aml and kshar. Even when the students cleaned their plates and left, the words stayed with me. I hope the students will think of them too whenever they see laundry detergent or eat bhatt.

Overall, this outreach activity was a great learning experience for everyone - students, teachers and me. I now have a better understanding of the scientific background of these students and the resources available to them. I have also been meeting with higher education professionals to discuss steps that can be taken to further promote science education in this region. I am excited about the future!

I am grateful that I was able to share my first outreach experience in India with you all. Who knows if this was the first of many?!

Acknowledgements

I am grateful to the principal and teachers of Rajkiya Inter College, Naukuchiatal, for allowing me to conduct this activity with their students. I would also like to thank my parents who helped me put my outreach plans into action. And a big shout out to Kelly and Marcie at Yellow Scope for donating supplies that made this activity possible!

 Meghna Pant, PhD
Yellow Scope Science Education Consultant


News  

glitter slime featured image | Yellow Scope slime recipe

Let's Make Slime!

Slime never ceases to fascinate kids, and it seems it’s all the rage again! Which is great news, because you can make slime right at home, and maybe even learn a little science while you’re at it!

slime had | Yellow Scope slime recipeTurns out you can make slime with any number of household items. A big component of most recipes is glue. Good old Elmer’s Washable works just fine.

All of these recipes are for one 'serving' of slime (not edible!) for one child. We find that 1/4 cup of glue makes a perfectly generous handful of slime (many websites call for a whole cup, but then your glue stock disappears!)

Tips:

Check all ingredients for anything that might be an allergen for your kids.
Supervise to make sure your kids don't eat the slime (especially any containing borax).
Wash your hands before and after making slime! Clean hands makes clean slime, and washing up after makes a clean you!

Click on the icons to skip to the recipe of your choice:

Crystal Clear Slime

Glitter Slime

Stretchy Slime

Poofy Slime

Floam (Crunchy) Slime

Ooblek (Cornstarch) Slime

1. Crystal Clear Slime

clear slime product | Yellow Scope slime recipes

Want the purest, clearest, snottiest slime there is? Try this recipe out for a glass-like finish to your new slime!

What You'll Need:

clear slime ingredients | Yellow Scope slime recipes

  • Clear Glue
  • Water
  • Borax Powder (in the laundry aisle)
  • Measuring Cup (1/4 cup)
  • Bowl
  • Spoon
  • Teaspoon

A Note On Borax: Borax is a boron mineral and salt that comes right from the ground. It's often used as a laundry detergent enhancer or cleaner, but it is toxic if ingested in large amounts.

Just handling it while playing with slime from this recipe won't cause any harm, but you might consider supervision to prevent ingestion. This is the only recipe that uses it.

If you're still nervous, liquid starch works just as well - see Glitter Slime (makes for slightly stretchier slime too). Read about borax in slime from Parents.com for more information.

Let's Get Started!

clear slime bowl | Yellow Scope slime recipe

 

1. Pour 1/4 cup of clear glue into a bowl.
2. Add 1/4 cup of water and stir. Set the bowl aside for a bit.
3. To the measuring cup, add 1/4 cup of hot tap water.
4. Add 1/4 teaspoon of borax powder to the hot water in the measuring cup. Stir until you can't see any little particles at the bottom.
5. Add the borax and water solution to your bowl of glue and water. Slimetastic!
6. Knead your slime to get a great texture.

Note: if some of the liquid won't stir in, that's okay, just pull out your slime and dispose of the extra liquid.

clear slime product | Yellow Scope slime recipe

What's going on?

Try experimenting with the slime a bit - move it around, poke it gently, poke it quickly... How does it behave? More like a liquid or more like a solid? If you think the slime seems like both a solid and a liquid, you're right! Some types of slime (and other mixtures like ooblek - see Recipe #6 below) can have qualities of both a solid and a liquid. Substances that can behave like a solid and a liquid at the same time are called non-Newtonian fluids. (Big word, right?!)

How does it work?

Glue is made of long molecules called polymers. Polymers are long chains of repeating units. These polymers can slide over each other, so glue flows like a thick liquid. When borax is added to glue, a chemical reaction occurs that causes cross-links, or bridges, to form between the glue molecules.

This cross-linking of glue molecules is what creates slime. You may have noticed that if you leave the slime alone, it acts like a liquid and will mold to the shape of its container. This happens because the long slime molecules coil up and slide over each other.

But when you apply pressure, this causes the molecular coils to unwind and get tangled up. This makes it harder for the slime to flow, so it feels more like a solid. Pretty cool, right? Now you know what a non-Newtonian fluids is! To learn more about these interesting materials check out this cool video from Crash Course Kids!

2. Glitter Slime

Let's get our glitter on! This is a very popular recipe.

glitter slime yellow scope slime recipe

What You'll Need:

glitter slime ingredients | Yellow Scope slime recipes

  • Clear Glue
  • Liquid Starch (Purex Sta-Flo)
  • Glitter (or confetti!)
  • Water
  • Bowl
  • Measuring Cup (1/4 cup)
  • Spoon

Let's Get Started!

1. Add 1/4 cup of glue to your bowl.
2. Add 1/4 cup of water and mix.
3. Add glitter (don't be shy, add a lot!) and stir.
4. Add 1/4 cup of liquid starch and watch the reaction before your eyes!
5. Stir with the spoon until that becomes difficult, then use your hands.

glitter slime product | Yellow Scope slime recipe

Note: You can also add food coloring along with the glitter if you want some more color! Try other materials, like confetti, stars, or combinations!

3. Stretchy Slime

In it for the stretch? This is a very satisfying slime that takes a little more patience, but is well worth the wait.

What You'll Need:

  • Glue
  • Eye Drops (we used Visine, but any brand should work)
  • Baking Soda
  • Food Coloring (optional)
  • Glass Measuring Cup
  • Spoon

Let's Get Started!

stretchy slime bowl | Yellow Scope slime recipe

1. Add 1/2 cup of glue to the measuring cup.
2. Add food coloring if you want to add color. Stir.
3. Add 2 teaspoons baking soda and stir
4. Add the eye drops 10 drops at a time, stirring after every set of 10, for a total of 50 drops. 
5. Wet your fingers a bit with the eye drops and pick up your slime. It should still be a little sticky.
6. Knead your slime by stretching and pulling.

stretchy slime product | Yellow Scope slime recipe

4. Poofy Slime

 

This entertaining slime is made of shaving cream - and who hasn't wanted to play with shaving cream? The very act of spraying it into the bowl is a thrill for most kids.

What You'll Need:

 poofy slime ingredients | Yellow Scope slime recipes

  • Glue
  • Foaming Shaving Cream (Barbasol works fine)
  • Baking Soda
  • Food Coloring (optional)
  • Saline Solution (contains both sodium borate and boric acid}
  • Measuring Cup (1/4 cup)
  • Bowl
  • Spoon
  • Tablespoon

Let's Get Started!

poofy slime bowl | Yellow Scope slime recipes

1. Add about 2 cups of shaving cream into your bowl.
2. Add food coloring if you want! (We used blue and yellow to make green)
3. Add 1/4 cup of glue. Stir well.
4. Add 1/4 teaspoon of baking soda.
5. Add 1/2 Tablespoon of the saline solution. Mix like you're whipping cream (vigorously!)
6. Remove and knead with your hands.

At first the slime will stick to your hands quite a bit, but just keep kneading (for about one minute). Eventually  the poofy slime will come together and form a ball (and come off your hands)!

poofy slime product | Yellow Scope slime recipes

5. Floam (Crunchy) Slime

Call them dragon eggs, frog eggs, or just spongy goodness, this is an easy experiment - it's basically the same recipe as glitter slime except with polystyrene beads. True confession: we didn't make this one ourselves, but our friends at Little Bins for Little Hands did - take a look at the fun they had!

What You'll Need:

floam slime ingredients | Yellow Scope slime recipes

  • Glue
  • Water
  • Liquid Starch
  • Polystyrene foam beads
  • Food Coloring (optional)
  • Measuring Cup (1/4 cup)
  • Bowl
  • Spoon

Let's Get Started!

 

1. Start by adding 1/4 cup of glue to your bowl.
2. Add 1/4 cup of water and mix.
3. Add food coloring (if you want!) and stir.
4. Add the styrofoam beads - anywhere from 1/2 to a full cup - and stir.
5. Add 1/4 cup of liquid starch and stir.
6. Knead and stretch, it should be ready (not sticky) in about a minute!

floam slime product | Yellow Scope slime recipes

6. Ooblek (Cornstarch) Slime

ooblek | Yellow Scope Slime RecipesHave you heard of ooblek? It’s that crazy material that you can make with just cornstarch and water. We mentioned ooblek in Recipe #1 above - it's another example of a non-Newtonian fluid. To learn more about these interesting materials check out this cool video from Crash Course Kids!

If your child has never experienced ooblek, start by first making and experimenting with that:

Ooblek: Mix 2 tablespoons cornstarch with 5 tablespoons water and blow their mind.

You could call ooblek a type of slime, but it doesn't quite make the cut; you can't really hold it in your hand without it dripping all over.

As fun as it is, you might have to go the extra mile and follow the glue recipe below to make it more traditionally slime-like. Let’s try it:

What You’ll Need:

ooblek ingredients | Yellow Scope Slime Recipes

  • Glue
  • Cornstarch
  • Food Coloring (optional)
  • Glass Measuring Cup
  • Tablespoon
  • Spoon
  • Surface Covering (like a plate, newspaper, etc, as this tends to get messy!)

Let’s Get Started!

As cornstarch tends to get everywhere, and this recipe tends to be finicky, we've outlined a fairly small sample size. Increase as desired!
  1. Measure out 1 tablespoon of glue and pour it into the container.
  2. Want to make it colorful? Add food coloring now!
  3. Add 2 tablespoons of cornstarch slowly, mixing as you add it. Watch it thicken!
  4. If you can pick up your slime and it’s not sticky or gooey, go to step 5. If not, add a little more corn starch.
  5. Pick up your blob of slime and knead it for a few minutes. You're done - have fun playing!
Note: If the slime feels too dry, add just a tiny bit of glue. The consistency should be a bit like Play-Doh.

ooblek product | Yellow Scope Slime Recipes

SHARE WITH US!

Let us know what you did. Share your photos and results with us on Facebook, Twitter, or send us an email to info@yellow-scope.com. We love getting your messages!

For more exciting experiments, check out our Science Kits on the Shop tab of our website!

 


Soap Bubbles | Camp Yellow Scope

 

Howdy Campers!

Welcome back to Week 8 of Camp Yellow Scope! It's our last week - it went fast, didn't it?  We hope you had fun experimenting and learned some interesting science facts! Maybe you even designed your own experiments? 

Click here to download printable instructions. You can also print out a lab worksheet to record your observations, jot down ideas, and design your own experiments! If you collect your worksheets together from all eight weeks, by the end of the summer you’ll have your very own Camp Yellow Scope notebook! You can even add some extra sheets for new experiments you design yourself. 

Experiment 1: Build a Better Bubble

When we think of summer, we think of blowing bubbles! They’re so easy to make and fun to play with, who would guess that there’s a really important science concept at work? This week’s experiment explores the concept of surface tension (remember that from Week 2?) And at the same time, you will learn some tricks to make your bubbles last longer!

All you need is some glycerin, corn syrup and dish soap, and we will teach you some tricks to make your bubbles last longer!

Let’s get started!

Clear some space on your kitchen counter or outside on your picnic table and get ready to science!

Hypothesis

Which ingredient do you think will help you make stronger, long-lasting bubbles: glycerin or corn syrup? Write your hypotheses on your worksheet.

Instructions

Supplies Camp Yellow Scope
  1. Place the 3 bowls on top of the 3 pieces of paper on flat surface, like the kitchen counter or picnic table.
  2. Label the papers:
    1. Dish Soap
    2. Dish Soap + Glycerin
    3. Dish Soap + Corn Syrup
  3. Add 1/2 cup of tap water to each bowl.
  4. Add 2 tablespoons of dish soap to each bowl. Mix gently with spoon.
  5. To “glycerin” bowl, add 1 tablespoon of glycerin. Gently mix.
  6. To “corn syrup” bowl, add 1 tablespoon of corn syrup. Gently mix.
  7. Make a loop in each of the 3 pipe cleaners to make bubble wands. Try to make all 3 loops the same size.
  8. Start making bubbles by dipping the loops into the liquid and gently blowing.
  9. Start the timer once the bubble is formed. (If you have a Foundation Chemistry Kit, you can use the purple timer!)
  10. Record how long each bubble lasts.
  11. Repeat the experiment 3 times with each bubble solution. (It may take some practice to make really good bubbles consistently!)
  12. Calculate the average time a bubble lasts for each solution. Remember how we calculated averages when we counted drops on a penny in Week 2 of Camp Yellow Scope?
  13. NOTE: To control the strength of the air passing through the bubble, you can also try holding the loop in front of a fan, set on its lowest speed.

 

 

                Time

 

Material

Run 1

Run 2

Run 3

Average

Dish Soap

 

 

 

 

Dish Soap + Glycerin

 

 

 

 

Dish Soap + Corn Syrup

 

 

 

 

 

What did you see? How long did your bubbles last? Did glycerin or corn syrup help them to last longer?

What's Happening?

Bubble Camp Yellow Scope

On its own, water is not very good at making bubbles because the surface tension is too strong. (You learned all about surface tension in Week 2). When soap is added to water, the soap molecules push their way between the water molecules and lower the surface tension. When air is blown into the mixture, a round bubble forms. A bubble is just a “skin” made of soap and water surrounding a pocket of air.

Substances like glycerin and corn syrup help the bubbles to last longer by making them more stable. They also help prevent the evaporation of water.

 

Extensions soap bubbles | Camp Yellow Scope

Why does it matter?

Did you know that bubbles are not just for playing with!? Can you think of some real-life applications of bubbles?

  • Scientists are designing tiny bubbles that can carry and deliver drugs to specific regions of our body.
  • Pistol shrimp release bubbles to kill their prey!
  • Did you know that when bubbles burst they release a lot of energy? Scientists hope that we will be able to capture and use this energy in future.

You Own It! Test yourself: True or False?

  1. Dish soap increases the surface tension of water.
  2. You can make better bubbles with glycerin.
  3. Corn syrup and glycerin make the bubble unstable, causing it to burst.

Answer Key:

1. False. Dish soap decreases the surface tension of water.
2. True.
3. False. Corn syrup and glycerin make the bubble more stable.

Foam Camp Yellow Scope

Congratulations, Camper! You did it. Eight weeks of hands-on experiments at Camp Yellow Scope. Give yourself a pat on the back! We hope you had fun and learned some cool science facts along the way. 

For completing all eight weeks of camp, you earned a certificate! Print it out and hang it on your wall with pride.

If you didn't get a chance to try out all the experiments, don't worry - the experiments are staying put on the Yellow Scope blog page, so you can come back to check them out anytime!

Happy summer and happy experimenting!
Team Yellow Scope


Density Camp Yellow Scope

Howdy Campers!

Welcome to Week 7 of Camp Yellow Scope. Time sure goes by fast when you're having fun, right?! Click here to download printable instructions. You can also print out a lab worksheet to record your observations, jot down ideas, and design your own experiments! If you collect your worksheets together from all eight weeks, by the end of the summer you’ll have your very own Camp Yellow Scope notebook! You can even add some extra sheets for new experiments you design yourself.

Experiment 1: Liquid Rainbow

Density | Camp Yellow Scope

You’ve probably used crayons or paint to draw rainbows on paper. How would you like to make a liquid rainbow? In this week’s experiments, we’ll try to stack different colored liquids on top of each other.

The trick to stacking liquids depends on a property called density. Density refers to how much stuff can be packed in a given space. Scientists call the “stuff”, mass and the “space”, volume. To change the density of a liquid you can add more stuff (or mass) to a given volume. In our experiments this week, we are going to make solutions of sugar water that have different densities. Adding more sugar to given volume of water will increase the density of the water.

Let’s get started

Are you ready to make a liquid rainbow? All you need is sugar, water, and some food coloring. Clear a space and get ready to have fun while doing science!

Hypothesis

What do you think will happen when you add plain water on top of sugar water? Will the two liquids mix? Write down your hypotheses in your lab worksheet.

Instructions

Supplies Camp Yellow Scope
  1. Put on your safety goggles.
  2. Add 1 cup of tap water (not too cold) to each of the 2 cups/glasses.
  3. Color each cup of water a different color with a few drops of food coloring. (Make one yellow and one blue, for example.)
  4. Label one of the cups “Water” and set aside.
  5. To the second cup, add 8 teaspoons of sugar. Stir until all the sugar is dissolved. Label this cup “Sugar Water”.
  6. Now place the clear narrow glass on a flat surface.
  7. Carefully pour some of the “Sugar Water” into the glass.
  8. Let the sugar water settle.
  9. Now you are going to try to carefully try stack the plain colored water from the “Water” cup on top of the sugar water. To do this, use the medicine dropper to slowly and carefully transfer some of the “Water” to the glass on top of the “Sugar Water”. Keep adding the “Water” until you can see a nice band of color on top of the “Sugar Water”.
  10. Draw what you see on your lab worksheet.

Congratulations, Campers, you made the beginning of a liquid rainbow!

What’s Happening?

Why did the plain water stack on top of the sugar water instead of mixing in? To understand this, let’s talk more about density.

 Consider what was in each cup:

  • The first cup (“Water”) just had 1 cup of water.
  • The second cup (“Sugar Water”) had 1 cup of water plus 8 teaspoons of sugar.

Which liquid has a higher density? Right – the sugar water in the second cup is more dense. The volume was the same in both cases (1 cup) but the sugar increased the mass, and therefore the density, in the second cup.

Liquids that are more dense are heavier and will sink lower. Liquids that are less dense are lighter and will stay on top. In these experiments, the more dense sugar water was on the bottom and the less dense plain water was on the top. 

Density extension Camp Yellow Scope

 

Extensions Density Camp Yellow Scope

Why does it matter?

Can you think of everyday examples where density plays an important role?

  • If we know the density of an object, we can predict if it will sink or float in water. Engineers design ships so that they are less dense than water and therefore can float!
  • Oil is less dense than water and so floats on it. This makes cleaning up an oil spill in ocean a bit easier.
  • Helium balloons float up in the air because helium gases is less dense than air.

You own it! 

True or False:

  1. Oil is heavier than water.
  2. If an object is denser than water, it will sink.
  3. Density = Mass + Volume.

Answer key:

     1. False.  Oil is lighter than water and that’s why it floats on top.
     2. True.
     3. False. Density = Mass / Volume.

   

Density fun fact Camp Yellow Scope

We hope you had fun making liquid rainbows using science! Next week we will try to make better bubbles. Sounds exciting?! Check back next Tuesday for more summer science fun. 

We'd love to see how your experiments turned out! Share your photos or videos:

  • Facebook: Yellow Scope Science Kits for Girls
  • Twitter: @YellowScopeGirl, #CampYellowScope
  • email: info@yellow-scope.com

 

Fizzy Lemonade | Camp Yellow Scope

Howdy Campers!

Welcome back to week 6 of Camp Yellow Scope: Fizz & Fun. We hope you have been having fun while doing some serious science! Who is ready for today's experiment?

Click here to download printable instructions. You can also print out a lab worksheet to record your observations, jot down ideas, and design your own experiments! If you collect your worksheets together from all eight weeks, by the end of the summer you’ll have your very own Camp Yellow Scope notebook! You can even add some extra sheets for new experiments you design yourself.

Experiment 1: Add Some Fizz!

Nothing tastes better on a hot summer day than a cold glass of lemonade. Today we will make use of chemical reactions to make your lemonade taste better!

A chemical reaction happens when two substances bump into each other, rearrange some of their parts, and make a brand-new substance. In this experiment, you will mix lemon juice and baking soda together to produce a chemical reaction. 

Let's get started!

Clear out a space, wear clothes that can get messy and get ready to have fun with lemons!

Hypothesis

What do you think will happen when we mix baking soda and lemon juice? Will there be bubbles or will there be a change in color? Write your hypothesis in the work sheet.

WARNING: While it is safe to ingest the small amount of baking soda used in the experiment, large amounts should not be consumed, plus it doesn't taste that good!

Supplies Camp Yellow Scope

Instructions

  1. Ask an adult to slice the lemon into quarters.
  2. Squeeze as much juice as you can from the lemon pieces into the drinking glass.
  3. Add some water to the glass – about the same amount as lemon juice.
  4. Now add ¼ teaspoon of baking soda and observe what happens!
  5. Add 1 teaspoon of sugar (or a bit more) to sweeten the drink and stir well to dissolve the sugar.
  6. Add some ice and a straw if you’d like.
  7. Now taste your drink! What do you think of your homemade fizzy lemonade?

What's happening?

chemical reactions | Camp Yellow Scope

A chemical reaction happened between the citric acid in the lemon juice and the baking soda. When you added the baking soda to the lemon juice, the two substances bumped into each other, exchanged some of their parts, and formed a new substance – a gas called carbon dioxide (CO2). The fizz you saw was made up of lots of pockets of carbon dioxide gas bubbles floating up through the liquid.

This reaction is similar to the reaction that happens when you mix vinegar and baking soda to make a model of a volcano. That reaction also produces carbon dioxide gas bubbles.

Extensions Fizzy lemonade | Camp Yellow Scope

Why does it matter?

Can you think why chemical reactions are important?

  • Chemical reactions in the body (called biochemical reactions) digest our food, provide us with energy, make our heart beat, make our neurons fire and basically keep us alive!
  • Plants make their own food via a chemical reaction called photosynthesis.
  • Burning of wood to make a campfire involves a chemical reaction. S'mores, anyone?

You Own it! 

True or False

  1. Mixing lemon juice and baking soda produces carbon dioxide gas in a chemical reaction.  
  2. The fizz you saw was made up of lots of pockets of helium bubbles floating up through the liquid.
  3. Plants make their own food using a chemical reaction called photosynthesis.

Answer Key: 

1. True.  
2. False.The fizz you saw was made up of lots of pockets of carbon dioxide bubbles floating up through the liquid.
3. True.

Baking Soda| Camp Yellow Scope

We hope you had fun making a fizzy lemonade using science! Next week we will make a liquid rainbow using some sugar, water and food coloring. Sounds exciting?! Check back next Tuesday for more summer science fun. 

We'd love to see how your experiments turned out! Share your photos or videos:

  • Facebook: Yellow Scope Science Kits for Girls
  • Twitter: @YellowScopeGirl, #CampYellowScope
  • email: info@yellow-scope.com

For more exciting experiments on chemical reactions, check out our Foundation Chemistry Kit.


Paper Chromatography | Camp Yellow Scope

Howdy Campers!

Welcome to week 5 of Camp Yellow Scope: Pigments & Papers! Who's ready to have some fun (and do science!)? 

Click here if you’d like to download printable instructions. You can also print out a lab worksheet to record your observations, jot down ideas, and design your own experiments! If you collect your worksheets together from all eight weeks, by the end of the summer you will have your very own Camp Yellow Scope notebook! 

Experiment 1: Go Green!

Do you know what the three primary colors are? That's right - red, yellow, and blue. All other colors can be made by mixing these three colors together in different combinations.

What do you get when you mix blue and yellow together? …………

Did you say green? That's correct. But have you ever wondered if you can "un-mix" green to get blue and yellow again?! In this week's experiments, we are going to try to do just that. Get ready to amaze your friends and family with some pretty cool science. 

Mixture versus chemical reaction | Camp Yellow Scope                 

Let’s get started!

Clear a space on the kitchen counter, your desk, or the picnic table in the backyard. Put on some clothes that can get messy, and get ready to un-mix dyes!   

Hypothesis

  1. Can you un-mix the dyes in green food coloring?   YES   /   NO
  2. If you said YES, what colors do you think it will separate into? Circle one or more: red   yellow   purple   blue   orange

    Instructions 

    Supplies Paper Chromatography Camp Yellow Scope



    1. Put on your safety goggles.
    2. Using your scissors, cut the coffee filter or paper towel into rectangular strips - about ½ inch wide and 4 inches long.
    3. Squeeze one or two drops of food coloring onto a small piece of aluminum foil.
    4. About 1” from the bottom, using a toothpick, draw a line across the strip with the green food coloring.
    5. Make a solution of salt water: measure 1 tsp of table salt and place in one of the cups. Add ¼ cup of warm tap water and stir to dissolve. You will use this salt water to separate the green dye.
    6. Add a small amount of this salt water to the second cup, just about ½” deep.
    7. Holding the top of the strip, carefully dip the very bottom of the strip into the water in the cup. NOTE: Don’t let the water touch the marker line.
    8. Continue to hold the strip in the water for about one minute to allow the water to move up the strip, through the green line and beyond.
    9. Remove the strip from the water and record your observations below or on your lab worksheet. 

    Paper Chromatography | Camp Yellow Scope

    Congratulations, campers! You un-mixed a mixture of green dye.

    What’s going on?

    The technique you just used to un-mix green color is called paper chromatography. When the water touches the paper, it travels up through a process called capillary action. (You learned about that in last week's experiments with the celery!)

    When the water reaches the green dye line, it pulls the dye along with it and separates out the different colors that make up the green dye mixture.

    Why do some colors move further than others?

    • Some of the colors stick to the paper more than others so they don’t move as far up the paper.
    • Some colors are smaller or lighter than others so they move further up the strip.

    In this way, the different colored dyes in the green food coloring are separated, or un-mixed!

    Green color paper chromatography | Camp Yellow Scope

    Adding salt to the water changes the properties of the water. It makes it more attractive to some types of dyes. Some dyes move faster in salt water than in plain water. This means that for certain dyes, like the green food coloring we used, that salt water gives a better separation of colors.

    The final paper with separated colors is called a chromatogram. Scientists use the terms stationary phase for paper (because it doesn’t move) and mobile phase for water (since it moves!)

     

    Extensions Paper Chromatography | Camp Yellow Scope 

    Why does it matter?

    Can you think of some applications of paper chromatography from your daily lives?

    1. Forensic scientists use chromatography to test samples found at a crime scene to help solve crimes.
    2. Food scientists use the technique to separate out and detect toxins in foods.
    3. Environmental scientists use chromatography to look for really small amounts of dangerous substances such as pesticides in groundwater.

    You own it!

    Test yourself: True or False

    1. Chemical reactions can be un-mixed.
    2. Paper chromatography is a technique that many different scientists use in their work. 
    3. Some dyes move up the filter paper different distances than others because they have different weights. 

    Answer key: 

    1. False. Chemical reactions cannot be un-mixed because during a chemical reaction the individual components change and form new molecules. Mixtures, which do not change when combined, can be un-mixed.
    2. True
    3. True 

      We hope you had fun separating dyes. Next week we'll have some fun with lemons! So check back next Tuesday for new experiments and more summer science fun!

      We'd love to see how your experiments turned out! Share your photos or videos:

      • Facebook: Yellow Scope Science Kits for Girls
      • Twitter: @YellowScopeGirl, #CampYellowScope
      • email: info@yellow-scope.com

      For more exciting experiments, check out our science kits on the SHOP tab of our website!


      Tints & Tubes | Camp Yellow Scope

      Howdy Campers!

      Welcome to week 4 of Camp Yellow Scope: Tints & Tubes. Who's ready to have some fun with science?

      Click here if you’d like to download printable instructions. You can also print out a lab worksheet to record your observations, jot down ideas, and design your own experiments! If you collect your worksheets together from all eight weeks, by the end of the summer you will have your very own Camp Yellow Scope notebook! You can even add some extra sheets for new experiments that you design yourself.        

      Experiment 1: Up goes the water

      You’ve probably watered plants in your house or garden. Have you ever noticed that when you water the plants, you water the soil and not the leaves and flowers? How does the water gets to all parts of the plant? Is there a magical elevator in the stem that pulls the water up?

      This week we are going to do experiments to explore how water moves through plants. All you need is water, food coloring, and a stick of celery!

      Let’s get started

      Clear a space on the kitchen counter, your desk, or the picnic table in the backyard. Put on some clothes that can get messy, and get ready to do science!

      Hypothesis

      What do you think will happen when you put a celery stalk into colored water?
      Record your hypotheses in your worksheet.

      Supplies week 4 | Camp Yellow Scope

       

       

       

       

      Instructions

       

      1. Put on your safety goggles.
      2. Add about half a cup of water to the cup. 
      3. Add 5-6 drops of food coloring to the water. Stir to mix. (You want a nice dark color).
      4. With adult supervision, cut a small piece off the bottom off a stalk of celery to create a flat end. 
      5. Place the celery in the colored water with the cut side down and the leaves up. Let it sit for about one hour. During this time, see if you notice any changes.
      6. After an hour or so, remove the celery from the water and, with adult supervision, cut a small section about one inch up from the bottom. Lay the celery slice on its side and take a careful look.
      7. What do you see? Draw your results on lab worksheet.
      8. Return the celery to the colored water and leave for several more hours or overnight. Check back every few hours.
      9. Observe the leaves. What do you notice? Draw your results.

      What’s happening?

      Even though you placed the bottom of the celery into the colored water, you likely noticed that the color moved all the way up the celery, even to the tips of the leaves. How does this happen? How does water move up the celery – apparently defying the laws of gravity?

      To answer this question, let’s think about what you did during your experiment. When you looked at the cut slices of celery, you likely saw small round dots of color. The circles are actually cross-sections of a series of long narrow tubes that run lengthwise through the celery stalk. These tubes are called xylem (fun word, right?). Xylem helps to move water from the roots of a plant up to the leaves and flowers. How does this work?

      This upward movement of water (or any liquid) is called capillary action. Capillary action happens because of two properties of water:

      1. Water molecules like each other so much that they stick together. This stickiness creates surface tension because water molecules are more attracted to each other than they are to the air. We learned about this during Week 2 of Camp Yellow Scope.
      2. Although water molecules like to stick together, sometimes they want to stick to other substances even more. In this experiment, the water molecules are more strongly attracted to the xylem tubes in the celery than they are to other water molecules. So they stick to the sides of the tubes and are pulled up. As the surface water molecules move up the tube, they pull along the other water molecules. In this way, water moves up the celery stem.

      Capillary action is what allows water to be pulled up the stem of a plant to be delivered to all the different parts of the plant. 

       

      Carnations Capillary action | Camp Yellow Scope

      Paper towel capillary action | Camp Yellow Scope

      Why does it matter? 

      Can you think of examples of capillary action from your daily lives?

      capillary action in a narrow tube | Camp Yellow Scope
      1. When you clean up a juice spill with a paper towel, it's capillary action that draws the liquid into the paper towel! 
      2. Capillary action helps to move tears across your eyes, clearing away dust  and particles and keeping your eyes clean. 
      3. If you want to make the whole bread moist by dunking a small portion in gravy, you need capillary action.

       

      You own it!

      Test yourself: Match the Column!

      1. A narrow tube that helps to carry water in plants.            a. Capillary action
      2. Formation of tears requires...                                       b. Narrow
      3. For capillary action to occur, the tube needs to be...         c. Xylem

      Answer Key: 1-c, 2-a, 3-b

      We hope you had fun learning about the built-in straws in celery. Next week we'll use capillary action to separate colors in dyes! So check back next Tuesday for new experiments and more summer science fun!

      Xylem acts like a straw | Camp Yellow Scope

      We'd love to see how your experiments turned out! Were you able to see the colored dots of xylem in your celery? Share your photos or videos:

      • Facebook: Yellow Scope Science Kits for Girls
      • Twitter: @YellowScopeGirl, #CampYellowScope
      • email: info@yellow-scope.com

      For more exciting experiments, check out our science kits on the SHOP tab of our website!

       


      Strawberry DNA | Camp Yellow Scope

      Howdy Campers!

      Welcome back to Camp Yellow Scope. We hope you enjoyed last two weeks learning about detergents, dyes and drops! Are you ready to have some more fun with detergents? It's week 3 of Camp Yellow Scope: Strawberry DNA!

      Click here to download printable instructions for the experiments. You can also print out a lab worksheet to record your observations, jot down ideas, and design your own experiments! If you collect your worksheets together from all eight weeks, by the end of the summer you will have your very own Camp Yellow Scope notebook! You can even add some extra sheets for new experiments you design yourself.

      Experiment 1: Strawberries & Strands

      You may have heard of genes and DNA. DNA is found inside the cells of all living things – from humans to guinea pigs, and fungus to strawberries. DNA contains the instructions to make living things.

      But have you ever seen DNA? Well today is your lucky day! And you don’t need to visit a fancy science lab - you can isolate DNA right at home. How cool is that?! In the first two weeks of Camp Yellow Scope, you used detergents to paint on milk and to destroy water drops. Now you'll use detergent to isolate DNA from strawberries. (And you thought dish soap was just for washing dishes...!)

      Let’s get started!

      Clear a space on the kitchen counter, your desk, or the picnic table in the backyard. Put on some clothes that can get messy, and get ready to pull the DNA out of strawberries!

      Hypothesis

      What do you think will happen when you mix dish soap with strawberries? Record your hypotheses on your lab worksheet.

      supplies week 3 | Camp Yellow Scope

       Instructions                         

      1. Put the rubbing alcohol in the freezer to chill. You'll use it later.  Warning: Rubbing alcohol should only be handled by an adult.
      2. Make the DNA Isolation Solution (see sticky note)
      3. Remove the green top from the strawberry. Place the strawberry in the baggie.
      DNA isolation solution | Camp Yellow Scope4. Add 2 tablespoons of the DNA isolation solution to the baggie with the strawberry.
      5. Carefully push the air out of the baggie and seal it tightly.
      6. Use your fingers to squeeze, smash, and mush the strawberry in the extraction solution until there are no large pieces left.
      7. Place the sieve over the small glass or jar.
      8. Pour the strawberry mixture from the bag into the sieve.
      9. Once all the liquid has drained through (you can gently push on the strawberry pulp with the back of a spoon to help it drain), set the sieve aside and discard the leftover strawberry material.
      10. Tilt the glass or jar containing the strawberry liquid, and very slowly pour 1 tablespoon of ice cold rubbing alcohol down the side of the glass. The alcohol should form a layer on top of the strawberry liquid. Be careful not to mix the two layers.hint use flashlight | Camp Yellow Scope
      11. The DNA will collect at the interface between the two layers (the place where the two layers touch). It will look like stringy, gooey, white strands. Look through the side of the glass to see strands of DNA in the strawberry liquid.
      12. To collect the DNA, carefully dip the bamboo skewer or toothpick into the alcohol layer and swirl around the interface. Carefully pull out the skewer or toothpick and check it out up close!DNA isolation from strawberries | Camp Yellow Scope

       

       

       

       

       

      What’s happening?

      Each part of the DNA isolation solution plays an important role in pulling the DNA out of the strawberry.

      • Dish soap: The detergent helps to dissolve and break open the membranes of the strawberry cells.
      • Salt: Salt helps to break up the cellular proteins that surround the DNA to release the DNA strands.
      • Rubbing alcohol: Because DNA is not soluble in the alcohol, it clumps together, or precipitates, in the alcohol.

      DNA extension experiments |Camp Yellow Scope

      Why does it matter?

      Can you think of real world examples where isolating DNA is important

      ?

      • At crime scenes, scientists isolate DNA from blood or hair samples to identify victims and criminals. This branch of science is called forensic science.
      • Paleontologists isolate DNA from ancient human, animal, or plant samples to identify and characterize species.
      • Doctors isolate DNA to detect genetic diseases.

                    DNA double helix | Camp Yellow Scope

        You own it!

        Test yourself: true or false

        1. Dish soap helps dissolve and break open cell membranes during DNA isolation.
        2. Doctors have no use for isolated DNA.
        3. DNA is soluble in alcohol.
        Human DNA to sun 600 times | Camp Yellow Scope

        Answer Key:
        1. True.
        2. False. Doctors isolate DNA to analyze for genetic diseases.
        3. False. DNA is not soluble in alcohol, so it clumps together and precipitates out.

         

        We hope you had fun learning about DNA and isolating it from a strawberry! Next week at Camp Yellow Scope, we’ll explore celery and its built-in straws! Intrigued? Check back next Tuesday for new experiments and more summer science fun!

         

        We'd love to see how your experiments turned out! How much DNA did you pull out of the strawberries? Share your photos or videos: 

        For more exciting experiments, check out our science kits on the SHOP tab of our website!


        Drops & Detergents | Camp Yellow Scope

        Welcome back Campers!

        It’s Week 2 of Camp Yellow Scope: Drops & Detergents! If you missed Week 1 of Camp Yellow Scope, don’t worry, we’ve got you covered. Click on Newton, our friendly lab rat (and fellow camper) to check out last week’s exciting experiments with milk and food coloring.

        Click here to download printable instructions. You can also print out a lab worksheet to record your observations, jot down ideas, and design your own experiments! If you collect your worksheets together from all eight weeks, by the end of the summer you’ll have your very own Camp Yellow Scope notebook! You can even add some extra sheets for new experiments you design yourself.

        Experiment 1: Drop & Flop

        When you think of summer, what comes to mind? Beaches, water parks, and neighborhood pools? Water and summer go hand-in-hand. You’ve probably noticed that when water splashes on the edge of the pool or other surfaces, it forms droplets, instead of spreading out evenly into a thin layer. But have you ever wondered why water forms drops?

        This week we’re going to explore the wonderful world of water and find answers to this question! How many drops of water do you think can fit on a penny? Five? Ten? Let’s experiment to find out!

        Let’s get started!

        Clear a space on the kitchen counter or another flat surface and get ready to science!

        Hypothesis

         

         

         

        How many drops of water do you think you can stack on top of a penny before they spill off? Will the drops sit beside each other or pile up? Record your hypotheses on your lab worksheet.

        Instructions

         


        supplies drops & detergents | Camp Yellow Scope

        1. Put on your safety goggles, if you have some. If you wear glasses, that works, too!
        2. Add half a cup of water to each of the two cups. Label cup 1 as “Plain Water” and cup 2 as “Soapy Water”.
        3. Add one teaspoon of dish soap to cup 2. Stir gently to mix.
        4. Place one of the pennies on a flat surface.
        5. Fill the dropper with plain water from cup 1.
        6. Carefully add drops of water to the penny, one by one, counting as you go.
        7. Keep track of the number of drops you add until the water spills over the edge of the penny.
        8. Record the number on the table below.
        9. Place the second penny on the flat surface and repeat the experiment, this time adding drops of the soapy water from cup 2, counting as you go.
        10. Record the number of drops of soapy water you were able to add until the water spilled off the penny.
        11. Now repeat the experiment two more times for each condition – Plain Water and Soapy Water – and record the number of drops on the table.
        12. Calculate the average for each condition. (See the sticky note for help with how to calculate an average.

         

         

           Number of Drops

         

         

         

        Run 1

        Run 2

        Run 3

        Average

        Plain Water

         

         

         

         

        Soapy Water

         

         

         

         

        calculating averages | Camp Yellow Scope

        Observations

        What did you observe? What shape did the plain water drops form? How about the soapy water? Did the penny hold more drops of the plain water or the soapy water? Record your observations on your lab worksheet.

        What’s happening?

        You probably noticed that the plain water formed round drops that merged together to make a tight dome of water on top of the penny. This is due to surface tension. Surface tension happens because water molecules are attracted to each other - they want to stick together. The molecules at the surface of the water get tugged on unevenly by the water below. This pulls the surface molecules inward, forming a strong and flexible film on the water’s surface. As you add more drops, the force of gravity becomes stronger than the surface tension forces. When this happens, the water spills over the edge of the penny.

        surface tension forms water drops | Camp Yellow Scope

        So why didn’t the soapy water form a tight dome? As you learned last week, soap molecules are made up of two different ends – a water-loving end and a water-hating end. As the water-hating ends try to move away from the water molecules, they push to the surface. This weakens the attraction between the water molecules and breaks the surface tension, so the water can’t form drops.

        soap breaks surface tension | Camp Yellow Scope

         

        Why does it matter?

        Can you think of ways surface tension is important in your everyday life?

        • Insects such as water striders are able to walk across the surface of the pond because of the tight film (surface tension) on top of the water.
        • Have you noticed the red liquid in a thermometer? It’s able to rise and fall because of surface tension.
        • Your raincoat has likely been treated with water repellent materials that cause water to “bead up” instead of soaking into the fabric.

        design your own experiments Drops & Detergents | Camp Yellow Scope

         

        You own it! Test yourself: True or False?

        ducks are waterproof | Camp Yellow Scope
        1. Soap can reduce surface tension.
        2. More drops of soapy water can fit on a penny than plain water.
        3. Surface tension allows insects to walk on water.

        Answer Key:
        1. True.
        2. False. More drops of plain water can fit on a penny because of surface tension.
        3. True.

        We hope you had fun learning about water droplets, soap, and surface tension! Next week at Camp Yellow Scope, we’ll do one more set of experiments using dish soap. This time we’ll use soap to isolate DNA from fruit. How cool is that?!

        We'd love to see how your experiments turned out! How many drops of water could you fit on a penny? Share your photos or videos:

        For more exciting experiments, check out our science kits on the SHOP tab of our website!