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Density Camp Yellow Scope

Howdy Campers!

Welcome to Week 7 of Camp Yellow Scope. Time sure goes by fast when you're having fun, right?! Click here to download printable instructions. You can also print out a lab worksheet to record your observations, jot down ideas, and design your own experiments! If you collect your worksheets together from all eight weeks, by the end of the summer you’ll have your very own Camp Yellow Scope notebook! You can even add some extra sheets for new experiments you design yourself.

Experiment 1: Liquid Rainbow

Density | Camp Yellow Scope

You’ve probably used crayons or paint to draw rainbows on paper. How would you like to make a liquid rainbow? In this week’s experiments, we’ll try to stack different colored liquids on top of each other.

The trick to stacking liquids depends on a property called density. Density refers to how much stuff can be packed in a given space. Scientists call the “stuff”, mass and the “space”, volume. To change the density of a liquid you can add more stuff (or mass) to a given volume. In our experiments this week, we are going to make solutions of sugar water that have different densities. Adding more sugar to given volume of water will increase the density of the water.

Let’s get started

Are you ready to make a liquid rainbow? All you need is sugar, water, and some food coloring. Clear a space and get ready to have fun while doing science!

Hypothesis

What do you think will happen when you add plain water on top of sugar water? Will the two liquids mix? Write down your hypotheses in your lab worksheet.

Instructions

Supplies Camp Yellow Scope
  1. Put on your safety goggles.
  2. Add 1 cup of tap water (not too cold) to each of the 2 cups/glasses.
  3. Color each cup of water a different color with a few drops of food coloring. (Make one yellow and one blue, for example.)
  4. Label one of the cups “Water” and set aside.
  5. To the second cup, add 8 teaspoons of sugar. Stir until all the sugar is dissolved. Label this cup “Sugar Water”.
  6. Now place the clear narrow glass on a flat surface.
  7. Carefully pour some of the “Sugar Water” into the glass.
  8. Let the sugar water settle.
  9. Now you are going to try to carefully try stack the plain colored water from the “Water” cup on top of the sugar water. To do this, use the medicine dropper to slowly and carefully transfer some of the “Water” to the glass on top of the “Sugar Water”. Keep adding the “Water” until you can see a nice band of color on top of the “Sugar Water”.
  10. Draw what you see on your lab worksheet.

Congratulations, Campers, you made the beginning of a liquid rainbow!

What’s Happening?

Why did the plain water stack on top of the sugar water instead of mixing in? To understand this, let’s talk more about density.

 Consider what was in each cup:

  • The first cup (“Water”) just had 1 cup of water.
  • The second cup (“Sugar Water”) had 1 cup of water plus 8 teaspoons of sugar.

Which liquid has a higher density? Right – the sugar water in the second cup is more dense. The volume was the same in both cases (1 cup) but the sugar increased the mass, and therefore the density, in the second cup.

Liquids that are more dense are heavier and will sink lower. Liquids that are less dense are lighter and will stay on top. In these experiments, the more dense sugar water was on the bottom and the less dense plain water was on the top. 

Density extension Camp Yellow Scope

 

Extensions Density Camp Yellow Scope

Why does it matter?

Can you think of everyday examples where density plays an important role?

  • If we know the density of an object, we can predict if it will sink or float in water. Engineers design ships so that they are less dense than water and therefore can float!
  • Oil is less dense than water and so floats on it. This makes cleaning up an oil spill in ocean a bit easier.
  • Helium balloons float up in the air because helium gases is less dense than air.

You own it! 

True or False:

  1. Oil is heavier than water.
  2. If an object is denser than water, it will sink.
  3. Density = Mass + Volume.

Answer key:

     1. False.  Oil is lighter than water and that’s why it floats on top.
     2. True.
     3. False. Density = Mass / Volume.

   

Density fun fact Camp Yellow Scope

We hope you had fun making liquid rainbows using science! Next week we will try to make better bubbles. Sounds exciting?! Check back next Tuesday for more summer science fun. 

We'd love to see how your experiments turned out! Share your photos or videos:

  • Facebook: Yellow Scope Science Kits for Girls
  • Twitter: @YellowScopeGirl, #CampYellowScope
  • email: info@yellow-scope.com

 

Fizzy Lemonade | Camp Yellow Scope

Howdy Campers!

Welcome back to week 6 of Camp Yellow Scope: Fizz & Fun. We hope you have been having fun while doing some serious science! Who is ready for today's experiment?

Click here to download printable instructions. You can also print out a lab worksheet to record your observations, jot down ideas, and design your own experiments! If you collect your worksheets together from all eight weeks, by the end of the summer you’ll have your very own Camp Yellow Scope notebook! You can even add some extra sheets for new experiments you design yourself.

Experiment 1: Add Some Fizz!

Nothing tastes better on a hot summer day than a cold glass of lemonade. Today we will make use of chemical reactions to make your lemonade taste better!

A chemical reaction happens when two substances bump into each other, rearrange some of their parts, and make a brand-new substance. In this experiment, you will mix lemon juice and baking soda together to produce a chemical reaction. 

Let's get started!

Clear out a space, wear clothes that can get messy and get ready to have fun with lemons!

Hypothesis

What do you think will happen when we mix baking soda and lemon juice? Will there be bubbles or will there be a change in color? Write your hypothesis in the work sheet.

WARNING: While it is safe to ingest the small amount of baking soda used in the experiment, large amounts should not be consumed, plus it doesn't taste that good!

Supplies Camp Yellow Scope

Instructions

  1. Ask an adult to slice the lemon into quarters.
  2. Squeeze as much juice as you can from the lemon pieces into the drinking glass.
  3. Add some water to the glass – about the same amount as lemon juice.
  4. Now add ¼ teaspoon of baking soda and observe what happens!
  5. Add 1 teaspoon of sugar (or a bit more) to sweeten the drink and stir well to dissolve the sugar.
  6. Add some ice and a straw if you’d like.
  7. Now taste your drink! What do you think of your homemade fizzy lemonade?

What's happening?

chemical reactions | Camp Yellow Scope

A chemical reaction happened between the citric acid in the lemon juice and the baking soda. When you added the baking soda to the lemon juice, the two substances bumped into each other, exchanged some of their parts, and formed a new substance – a gas called carbon dioxide (CO2). The fizz you saw was made up of lots of pockets of carbon dioxide gas bubbles floating up through the liquid.

This reaction is similar to the reaction that happens when you mix vinegar and baking soda to make a model of a volcano. That reaction also produces carbon dioxide gas bubbles.

Extensions Fizzy lemonade | Camp Yellow Scope

Why does it matter?

Can you think why chemical reactions are important?

  • Chemical reactions in the body (called biochemical reactions) digest our food, provide us with energy, make our heart beat, make our neurons fire and basically keep us alive!
  • Plants make their own food via a chemical reaction called photosynthesis.
  • Burning of wood to make a campfire involves a chemical reaction. S'mores, anyone?

You Own it! 

True or False

  1. Mixing lemon juice and baking soda produces carbon dioxide gas in a chemical reaction.  
  2. The fizz you saw was made up of lots of pockets of helium bubbles floating up through the liquid.
  3. Plants make their own food using a chemical reaction called photosynthesis.

Answer Key: 

1. True.  
2. False.The fizz you saw was made up of lots of pockets of carbon dioxide bubbles floating up through the liquid.
3. True.

Baking Soda| Camp Yellow Scope

We hope you had fun making a fizzy lemonade using science! Next week we will make a liquid rainbow using some sugar, water and food coloring. Sounds exciting?! Check back next Tuesday for more summer science fun. 

We'd love to see how your experiments turned out! Share your photos or videos:

  • Facebook: Yellow Scope Science Kits for Girls
  • Twitter: @YellowScopeGirl, #CampYellowScope
  • email: info@yellow-scope.com

For more exciting experiments on chemical reactions, check out our Foundation Chemistry Kit.


Paper Chromatography | Camp Yellow Scope

Howdy Campers!

Welcome to week 5 of Camp Yellow Scope: Pigments & Papers! Who's ready to have some fun (and do science!)? 

Click here if you’d like to download printable instructions. You can also print out a lab worksheet to record your observations, jot down ideas, and design your own experiments! If you collect your worksheets together from all eight weeks, by the end of the summer you will have your very own Camp Yellow Scope notebook! 

Experiment 1: Go Green!

Do you know what the three primary colors are? That's right - red, yellow, and blue. All other colors can be made by mixing these three colors together in different combinations.

What do you get when you mix blue and yellow together? …………

Did you say green? That's correct. But have you ever wondered if you can "un-mix" green to get blue and yellow again?! In this week's experiments, we are going to try to do just that. Get ready to amaze your friends and family with some pretty cool science. 

Mixture versus chemical reaction | Camp Yellow Scope                 

Let’s get started!

Clear a space on the kitchen counter, your desk, or the picnic table in the backyard. Put on some clothes that can get messy, and get ready to un-mix dyes!   

Hypothesis

  1. Can you un-mix the dyes in green food coloring?   YES   /   NO
  2. If you said YES, what colors do you think it will separate into? Circle one or more: red   yellow   purple   blue   orange

    Instructions 

    Supplies Paper Chromatography Camp Yellow Scope



    1. Put on your safety goggles.
    2. Using your scissors, cut the coffee filter or paper towel into rectangular strips - about ½ inch wide and 4 inches long.
    3. Squeeze one or two drops of food coloring onto a small piece of aluminum foil.
    4. About 1” from the bottom, using a toothpick, draw a line across the strip with the green food coloring.
    5. Make a solution of salt water: measure 1 tsp of table salt and place in one of the cups. Add ¼ cup of warm tap water and stir to dissolve. You will use this salt water to separate the green dye.
    6. Add a small amount of this salt water to the second cup, just about ½” deep.
    7. Holding the top of the strip, carefully dip the very bottom of the strip into the water in the cup. NOTE: Don’t let the water touch the marker line.
    8. Continue to hold the strip in the water for about one minute to allow the water to move up the strip, through the green line and beyond.
    9. Remove the strip from the water and record your observations below or on your lab worksheet. 

    Paper Chromatography | Camp Yellow Scope

    Congratulations, campers! You un-mixed a mixture of green dye.

    What’s going on?

    The technique you just used to un-mix green color is called paper chromatography. When the water touches the paper, it travels up through a process called capillary action. (You learned about that in last week's experiments with the celery!)

    When the water reaches the green dye line, it pulls the dye along with it and separates out the different colors that make up the green dye mixture.

    Why do some colors move further than others?

    • Some of the colors stick to the paper more than others so they don’t move as far up the paper.
    • Some colors are smaller or lighter than others so they move further up the strip.

    In this way, the different colored dyes in the green food coloring are separated, or un-mixed!

    Green color paper chromatography | Camp Yellow Scope

    Adding salt to the water changes the properties of the water. It makes it more attractive to some types of dyes. Some dyes move faster in salt water than in plain water. This means that for certain dyes, like the green food coloring we used, that salt water gives a better separation of colors.

    The final paper with separated colors is called a chromatogram. Scientists use the terms stationary phase for paper (because it doesn’t move) and mobile phase for water (since it moves!)

     

    Extensions Paper Chromatography | Camp Yellow Scope 

    Why does it matter?

    Can you think of some applications of paper chromatography from your daily lives?

    1. Forensic scientists use chromatography to test samples found at a crime scene to help solve crimes.
    2. Food scientists use the technique to separate out and detect toxins in foods.
    3. Environmental scientists use chromatography to look for really small amounts of dangerous substances such as pesticides in groundwater.

    You own it!

    Test yourself: True or False

    1. Chemical reactions can be un-mixed.
    2. Paper chromatography is a technique that many different scientists use in their work. 
    3. Some dyes move up the filter paper different distances than others because they have different weights. 

    Answer key: 

    1. False. Chemical reactions cannot be un-mixed because during a chemical reaction the individual components change and form new molecules. Mixtures, which do not change when combined, can be un-mixed.
    2. True
    3. True 

      We hope you had fun separating dyes. Next week we'll have some fun with lemons! So check back next Tuesday for new experiments and more summer science fun!

      We'd love to see how your experiments turned out! Share your photos or videos:

      • Facebook: Yellow Scope Science Kits for Girls
      • Twitter: @YellowScopeGirl, #CampYellowScope
      • email: info@yellow-scope.com

      For more exciting experiments, check out our science kits on the SHOP tab of our website!


      Tints & Tubes | Camp Yellow Scope

      Howdy Campers!

      Welcome to week 4 of Camp Yellow Scope: Tints & Tubes. Who's ready to have some fun with science?

      Click here if you’d like to download printable instructions. You can also print out a lab worksheet to record your observations, jot down ideas, and design your own experiments! If you collect your worksheets together from all eight weeks, by the end of the summer you will have your very own Camp Yellow Scope notebook! You can even add some extra sheets for new experiments that you design yourself.        

      Experiment 1: Up goes the water

      You’ve probably watered plants in your house or garden. Have you ever noticed that when you water the plants, you water the soil and not the leaves and flowers? How does the water gets to all parts of the plant? Is there a magical elevator in the stem that pulls the water up?

      This week we are going to do experiments to explore how water moves through plants. All you need is water, food coloring, and a stick of celery!

      Let’s get started

      Clear a space on the kitchen counter, your desk, or the picnic table in the backyard. Put on some clothes that can get messy, and get ready to do science!

      Hypothesis

      What do you think will happen when you put a celery stalk into colored water?
      Record your hypotheses in your worksheet.

      Supplies week 4 | Camp Yellow Scope

       

       

       

       

      Instructions

       

      1. Put on your safety goggles.
      2. Add about half a cup of water to the cup. 
      3. Add 5-6 drops of food coloring to the water. Stir to mix. (You want a nice dark color).
      4. With adult supervision, cut a small piece off the bottom off a stalk of celery to create a flat end. 
      5. Place the celery in the colored water with the cut side down and the leaves up. Let it sit for about one hour. During this time, see if you notice any changes.
      6. After an hour or so, remove the celery from the water and, with adult supervision, cut a small section about one inch up from the bottom. Lay the celery slice on its side and take a careful look.
      7. What do you see? Draw your results on lab worksheet.
      8. Return the celery to the colored water and leave for several more hours or overnight. Check back every few hours.
      9. Observe the leaves. What do you notice? Draw your results.

      What’s happening?

      Even though you placed the bottom of the celery into the colored water, you likely noticed that the color moved all the way up the celery, even to the tips of the leaves. How does this happen? How does water move up the celery – apparently defying the laws of gravity?

      To answer this question, let’s think about what you did during your experiment. When you looked at the cut slices of celery, you likely saw small round dots of color. The circles are actually cross-sections of a series of long narrow tubes that run lengthwise through the celery stalk. These tubes are called xylem (fun word, right?). Xylem helps to move water from the roots of a plant up to the leaves and flowers. How does this work?

      This upward movement of water (or any liquid) is called capillary action. Capillary action happens because of two properties of water:

      1. Water molecules like each other so much that they stick together. This stickiness creates surface tension because water molecules are more attracted to each other than they are to the air. We learned about this during Week 2 of Camp Yellow Scope.
      2. Although water molecules like to stick together, sometimes they want to stick to other substances even more. In this experiment, the water molecules are more strongly attracted to the xylem tubes in the celery than they are to other water molecules. So they stick to the sides of the tubes and are pulled up. As the surface water molecules move up the tube, they pull along the other water molecules. In this way, water moves up the celery stem.

      Capillary action is what allows water to be pulled up the stem of a plant to be delivered to all the different parts of the plant. 

       

      Carnations Capillary action | Camp Yellow Scope

      Paper towel capillary action | Camp Yellow Scope

      Why does it matter? 

      Can you think of examples of capillary action from your daily lives?

      capillary action in a narrow tube | Camp Yellow Scope
      1. When you clean up a juice spill with a paper towel, it's capillary action that draws the liquid into the paper towel! 
      2. Capillary action helps to move tears across your eyes, clearing away dust  and particles and keeping your eyes clean. 
      3. If you want to make the whole bread moist by dunking a small portion in gravy, you need capillary action.

       

      You own it!

      Test yourself: Match the Column!

      1. A narrow tube that helps to carry water in plants.            a. Capillary action
      2. Formation of tears requires...                                       b. Narrow
      3. For capillary action to occur, the tube needs to be...         c. Xylem

      Answer Key: 1-c, 2-a, 3-b

      We hope you had fun learning about the built-in straws in celery. Next week we'll use capillary action to separate colors in dyes! So check back next Tuesday for new experiments and more summer science fun!

      Xylem acts like a straw | Camp Yellow Scope

      We'd love to see how your experiments turned out! Were you able to see the colored dots of xylem in your celery? Share your photos or videos:

      • Facebook: Yellow Scope Science Kits for Girls
      • Twitter: @YellowScopeGirl, #CampYellowScope
      • email: info@yellow-scope.com

      For more exciting experiments, check out our science kits on the SHOP tab of our website!

       


      Strawberry DNA | Camp Yellow Scope

      Howdy Campers!

      Welcome back to Camp Yellow Scope. We hope you enjoyed last two weeks learning about detergents, dyes and drops! Are you ready to have some more fun with detergents? It's week 3 of Camp Yellow Scope: Strawberry DNA!

      Click here to download printable instructions for the experiments. You can also print out a lab worksheet to record your observations, jot down ideas, and design your own experiments! If you collect your worksheets together from all eight weeks, by the end of the summer you will have your very own Camp Yellow Scope notebook! You can even add some extra sheets for new experiments you design yourself.

      Experiment 1: Strawberries & Strands

      You may have heard of genes and DNA. DNA is found inside the cells of all living things – from humans to guinea pigs, and fungus to strawberries. DNA contains the instructions to make living things.

      But have you ever seen DNA? Well today is your lucky day! And you don’t need to visit a fancy science lab - you can isolate DNA right at home. How cool is that?! In the first two weeks of Camp Yellow Scope, you used detergents to paint on milk and to destroy water drops. Now you'll use detergent to isolate DNA from strawberries. (And you thought dish soap was just for washing dishes...!)

      Let’s get started!

      Clear a space on the kitchen counter, your desk, or the picnic table in the backyard. Put on some clothes that can get messy, and get ready to pull the DNA out of strawberries!

      Hypothesis

      What do you think will happen when you mix dish soap with strawberries? Record your hypotheses on your lab worksheet.

      supplies week 3 | Camp Yellow Scope

       Instructions                         

      1. Put the rubbing alcohol in the freezer to chill. You'll use it later.  Warning: Rubbing alcohol should only be handled by an adult.
      2. Make the DNA Isolation Solution (see sticky note)
      3. Remove the green top from the strawberry. Place the strawberry in the baggie.
      DNA isolation solution | Camp Yellow Scope4. Add 2 tablespoons of the DNA isolation solution to the baggie with the strawberry.
      5. Carefully push the air out of the baggie and seal it tightly.
      6. Use your fingers to squeeze, smash, and mush the strawberry in the extraction solution until there are no large pieces left.
      7. Place the sieve over the small glass or jar.
      8. Pour the strawberry mixture from the bag into the sieve.
      9. Once all the liquid has drained through (you can gently push on the strawberry pulp with the back of a spoon to help it drain), set the sieve aside and discard the leftover strawberry material.
      10. Tilt the glass or jar containing the strawberry liquid, and very slowly pour 1 tablespoon of ice cold rubbing alcohol down the side of the glass. The alcohol should form a layer on top of the strawberry liquid. Be careful not to mix the two layers.hint use flashlight | Camp Yellow Scope
      11. The DNA will collect at the interface between the two layers (the place where the two layers touch). It will look like stringy, gooey, white strands. Look through the side of the glass to see strands of DNA in the strawberry liquid.
      12. To collect the DNA, carefully dip the bamboo skewer or toothpick into the alcohol layer and swirl around the interface. Carefully pull out the skewer or toothpick and check it out up close!DNA isolation from strawberries | Camp Yellow Scope

       

       

       

       

       

      What’s happening?

      Each part of the DNA isolation solution plays an important role in pulling the DNA out of the strawberry.

      • Dish soap: The detergent helps to dissolve and break open the membranes of the strawberry cells.
      • Salt: Salt helps to break up the cellular proteins that surround the DNA to release the DNA strands.
      • Rubbing alcohol: Because DNA is not soluble in the alcohol, it clumps together, or precipitates, in the alcohol.

      DNA extension experiments |Camp Yellow Scope

      Why does it matter?

      Can you think of real world examples where isolating DNA is important

      ?

      • At crime scenes, scientists isolate DNA from blood or hair samples to identify victims and criminals. This branch of science is called forensic science.
      • Paleontologists isolate DNA from ancient human, animal, or plant samples to identify and characterize species.
      • Doctors isolate DNA to detect genetic diseases.

                    DNA double helix | Camp Yellow Scope

        You own it!

        Test yourself: true or false

        1. Dish soap helps dissolve and break open cell membranes during DNA isolation.
        2. Doctors have no use for isolated DNA.
        3. DNA is soluble in alcohol.
        Human DNA to sun 600 times | Camp Yellow Scope

        Answer Key:
        1. True.
        2. False. Doctors isolate DNA to analyze for genetic diseases.
        3. False. DNA is not soluble in alcohol, so it clumps together and precipitates out.

         

        We hope you had fun learning about DNA and isolating it from a strawberry! Next week at Camp Yellow Scope, we’ll explore celery and its built-in straws! Intrigued? Check back next Tuesday for new experiments and more summer science fun!

         

        We'd love to see how your experiments turned out! How much DNA did you pull out of the strawberries? Share your photos or videos: 

        For more exciting experiments, check out our science kits on the SHOP tab of our website!


        Drops & Detergents | Camp Yellow Scope

        Welcome back Campers!

        It’s Week 2 of Camp Yellow Scope: Drops & Detergents! If you missed Week 1 of Camp Yellow Scope, don’t worry, we’ve got you covered. Click on Newton, our friendly lab rat (and fellow camper) to check out last week’s exciting experiments with milk and food coloring.

        Click here to download printable instructions. You can also print out a lab worksheet to record your observations, jot down ideas, and design your own experiments! If you collect your worksheets together from all eight weeks, by the end of the summer you’ll have your very own Camp Yellow Scope notebook! You can even add some extra sheets for new experiments you design yourself.

        Experiment 1: Drop & Flop

        When you think of summer, what comes to mind? Beaches, water parks, and neighborhood pools? Water and summer go hand-in-hand. You’ve probably noticed that when water splashes on the edge of the pool or other surfaces, it forms droplets, instead of spreading out evenly into a thin layer. But have you ever wondered why water forms drops?

        This week we’re going to explore the wonderful world of water and find answers to this question! How many drops of water do you think can fit on a penny? Five? Ten? Let’s experiment to find out!

        Let’s get started!

        Clear a space on the kitchen counter or another flat surface and get ready to science!

        Hypothesis

         

         

         

        How many drops of water do you think you can stack on top of a penny before they spill off? Will the drops sit beside each other or pile up? Record your hypotheses on your lab worksheet.

        Instructions

         


        supplies drops & detergents | Camp Yellow Scope

        1. Put on your safety goggles, if you have some. If you wear glasses, that works, too!
        2. Add half a cup of water to each of the two cups. Label cup 1 as “Plain Water” and cup 2 as “Soapy Water”.
        3. Add one teaspoon of dish soap to cup 2. Stir gently to mix.
        4. Place one of the pennies on a flat surface.
        5. Fill the dropper with plain water from cup 1.
        6. Carefully add drops of water to the penny, one by one, counting as you go.
        7. Keep track of the number of drops you add until the water spills over the edge of the penny.
        8. Record the number on the table below.
        9. Place the second penny on the flat surface and repeat the experiment, this time adding drops of the soapy water from cup 2, counting as you go.
        10. Record the number of drops of soapy water you were able to add until the water spilled off the penny.
        11. Now repeat the experiment two more times for each condition – Plain Water and Soapy Water – and record the number of drops on the table.
        12. Calculate the average for each condition. (See the sticky note for help with how to calculate an average.

         

         

           Number of Drops

         

         

         

        Run 1

        Run 2

        Run 3

        Average

        Plain Water

         

         

         

         

        Soapy Water

         

         

         

         

        calculating averages | Camp Yellow Scope

        Observations

        What did you observe? What shape did the plain water drops form? How about the soapy water? Did the penny hold more drops of the plain water or the soapy water? Record your observations on your lab worksheet.

        What’s happening?

        You probably noticed that the plain water formed round drops that merged together to make a tight dome of water on top of the penny. This is due to surface tension. Surface tension happens because water molecules are attracted to each other - they want to stick together. The molecules at the surface of the water get tugged on unevenly by the water below. This pulls the surface molecules inward, forming a strong and flexible film on the water’s surface. As you add more drops, the force of gravity becomes stronger than the surface tension forces. When this happens, the water spills over the edge of the penny.

        surface tension forms water drops | Camp Yellow Scope

        So why didn’t the soapy water form a tight dome? As you learned last week, soap molecules are made up of two different ends – a water-loving end and a water-hating end. As the water-hating ends try to move away from the water molecules, they push to the surface. This weakens the attraction between the water molecules and breaks the surface tension, so the water can’t form drops.

        soap breaks surface tension | Camp Yellow Scope

         

        Why does it matter?

        Can you think of ways surface tension is important in your everyday life?

        • Insects such as water striders are able to walk across the surface of the pond because of the tight film (surface tension) on top of the water.
        • Have you noticed the red liquid in a thermometer? It’s able to rise and fall because of surface tension.
        • Your raincoat has likely been treated with water repellent materials that cause water to “bead up” instead of soaking into the fabric.

        design your own experiments Drops & Detergents | Camp Yellow Scope

         

        You own it! Test yourself: True or False?

        ducks are waterproof | Camp Yellow Scope
        1. Soap can reduce surface tension.
        2. More drops of soapy water can fit on a penny than plain water.
        3. Surface tension allows insects to walk on water.

        Answer Key:
        1. True.
        2. False. More drops of plain water can fit on a penny because of surface tension.
        3. True.

        We hope you had fun learning about water droplets, soap, and surface tension! Next week at Camp Yellow Scope, we’ll do one more set of experiments using dish soap. This time we’ll use soap to isolate DNA from fruit. How cool is that?!

        We'd love to see how your experiments turned out! How many drops of water could you fit on a penny? Share your photos or videos:

        For more exciting experiments, check out our science kits on the SHOP tab of our website! 


        dyes and detergents | Camp Yellow Scope

        Howdy Campers!

        Welcome to Camp Yellow Scope! It’s going to be eight fun-filled weeks of exciting and colorful science experiments.

        Meet two of your fellow campers: Mae and her good friend, Newton, the lab rat. lab partners Mae and Newton | Camp Yellow ScopeThey’ll be your lab partners all summer long - to offer fun facts, advice, and safety tips along the way.

        Click here to download printable instructions for the experiments. You can also print out a lab worksheet to record your observations, jot down ideas, and design your own experiments! If you collect your worksheets together from all eight weeks, by the end of the summer you will have your very own Camp Yellow Scope notebook! You can even add some extra sheets for new experiments you design yourself.      

        Experiment 1: Painting on milk

        Let’s start camp with a fun activity that everyone’s familiar with - painting! Not sure that sounds “science-y” enough? Well, we’re not going to be using brushes and paper, we’ll be using chemistry to paint on milk!

        When you mix milk with food coloring and a drop of soap, some pretty exciting things happen. Be prepared to amaze your friends and family with this dynamic science experiment! It might seem like magic, but it’s science!

        Let’s get started!

        Clear a space on the kitchen counter, your desk, or the picnic table in the backyard. Put on some clothes that can get messy, and get ready to paint without a canvas or brush!

        supplies list | Camp Yellow Scope

        Hypothesis:

        Before starting an experiment, scientists first make a hypothesis. Do you know what a hypothesis is? Right! A hypothesis is a guess or prediction about what you think is going to happen in the experiment.

        What do you think will happen when you add drops of the food coloring to the milk? Will the two liquids mix? What do you think will happen when you add dish soap to the mixture? Record your hypotheses on your lab worksheet.

        Instructions:

        1.  Put on your safety goggles, if you have some. If you wear glasses, that works, too!
        2.  Place a wide, shallow bowl or plate on a flat work surface. Carefully pour some milk into the bowl.
        3.  Add several small drops of food coloring to the milk. (We used red, blue, yellow and green in our experiments.) Space the drops out around the bowl.
        4.  Touch the tip of the toothpick to a drop of dish soap and then lightly touch the toothpick to one of the colored drops. What did you see?!
        5. Now touch the other colored drops with the dish soap. Did the colors move?
        6. Continue to touch the colored drops to make different patterns.
        7. Draw your results.

        Congratulations, Camper, you painted with milk!

        What’s happening?

        You probably noticed that the drops of food coloring sat on the surface of the milk and did not mix in. This is because milk contains fat. Food coloring is water soluble, which means it mixes well with water, but not with fat. For this reason, the food coloring sits on top of the milk instead of mixing in, or dissolving, like it would in plain water.

        soap molecule | Camp Yellow Scope

        So what caused the crazy color contortions when you touched the dish soap to the food coloring? To answer this, we need to understand a bit about the chemistry of soap. Soap molecules are made up of two different ends. One end loves water (hydrophilic) and the other end hates water (hydrophobic), but loves fat. The hydrophobic, fat-loving ends stick to the fats, surround them, and trap them.

        In our experiments, as the dish soap molecules race around trapping the fat molecules in the milk, they push and shove the food coloring molecules all around the bowl. The food coloring allows us to observe these microscopic, molecular gymnastics.

        design ideas for experiments | Camp Yellow Scope

        Why does it matter?

        Can you think of ways that soaps and detergents are important in your everyday life?

        • Have you ever tried washing your hair with only water and no shampoo? It doesn’t work very well. The detergent in shampoo breaks up the dirt and grease in your hair.
        • Think about taking your car through an automated car wash. In addition to all the big brushes and water, the machines also squirt out a lot of sudsy soap to break up the oils and dirt that collect on your car.
        • In the garden, some people use a mixture of water and mild soap to remove insects like aphids from their plants. How soap kills insects is not totally understood, but it’s thought that it breaks down their cell membranes.
        Fun fact | Camp Yellow Scope
        You own it!
        Test yourself: true or false
        1. Food coloring dissolves well in milk.        
        2. Hydrophilic means “water-loving”.
        3. Washing your hair without shampoo is a good way to way to get it really clean.
        Answer Key:
        1. False. Food coloring is water soluble and does not dissolve well in fatty milk.
        2. True.
        3. False. Shampoo is needed to break up the dirt and grease in your hair.

         

        We hope you had fun learning about detergents and how they help us in grabbing grease! Next week at Camp Yellow Scope, we’ll try some new tricks with soap, pennies, and drops of water. Intrigued? Check back next Tuesday for new experiments and more summer science fun! 


        We'd love to see how your experiments turned out! What did your milk paintings look like? Share your photos or videos:

        • Facebook: Yellow Scope Science Kits for Girls
        • Twitter: @YellowScopeGirl, #CampYellowScope
        • email: info@yellow-scope.com

        For more exciting experiments, check out our science kits on the SHOP tab of our website!

         


        5 tips for summer

        In Portland, Oregon, school's almost out and here comes the elusive Pacific Northwest sun (we think....!) Your children are excited for the break, but how do you keep them engaged? 

        Here are five tips to keep them from getting bored and prevent the summer learning slide:

        1. DO SOME EXPERIMENTS

        There are plenty of great online sites for quick and easy science experiments (sciencebuddies.comstevespangler.com, and www.education.com/activity/science).
        acids bases ph chemistry kit designed for girls by yellow-scope.comOr sign up for Camp Yellow Scope and we’ll send you fun experiments every week, all summer long! (Launching June 5th)

        If you don’t have time to pull together the supplies for experiments, Yellow Scope science kits come with everything you’ll need to keep your scientist engaged and busy all while learning some cool science!

         

        2. READ EVERY DAY

        ada twistSome of our favorite girl power science books are Andrea Beatty’s Rosie Revere, Engineer, and Ada Twist, Scientist.

        We also love the beautifully illustrated Women in Science: 50 Fearless Pioneers Who Changed the World by Rachael Ignotofsky. Readers will find geneticists, volcanologists, and primatologists, as well as mathematicians and chemists. 

        Introduce the world of science with The Fourteenth Goldfish, where fifth grader Ellie meets a teen who looks like her scientist grandfather. Explore themes of family, friendship, life, death, and what’s possible through science. By Jennifer L. Holm, three time Newbery Honor winner.

        Also, check out Jeannine Atkins' Finding Wonders: Three Girls Who Changed Science, which showcases three real-life scientists (an entomologist, a paleontologist, and an astronomer), who loved science as children themselves.

        3. VISIT YOUR LOCAL LIBRARY

        Your local library offers some wonderful STEM learning opportunities. In the Portland area, Multnomah County Library has plenty of them. Check out their “Discovery STEM Kits”.

        You can also visit Rockwood Makerspace, which provides "access to innovation, technology, equipment, software and supportive mentors”. It’s geared toward middle school kids, but is open to all.
         

        4. SPEND A DAY AT A MUSEUM

        Take a field trip to your local science museum, aquarium or arboretum for some hands-on science fun!
        Around Portland:
        OMSI: Our very own science and technology museum with exhibits, a planetarium, and a submarine! (They offer summer camps too!)

        Hoyt Arboretum: Portland's "museum of living trees" includes 190 ridge-top acres, accessible by 12 miles of hiking trails.

        oregon coast aquarium tunnel
        The World Forestry Center: Learn about forests through hands-on exhibits and gallery, meet woodland creatures, try river rafting, and climb on Peggy the Train, our logging locomotive.

        The Oregon Coast Aquarium: If you’re up for a drive to Newport, this aquarium will make it well worth your while with animal feedings, special presentations and a mid-aquarium tunnel!

        5. SIGN UP FOR A SCIENCE SUMMER CAMP

        Check out local science-themed summer camps in your area. Some of our favorites in Portland are:

        trackers northwestTrackers Northwest: Day and overnight camps for kids and teens, wilderness survival and homesteading outdoor programs for all ages.

        Saturday AcademyClasses and camps in science, technology, engineering, math (STEM) and the arts for students grades 2-12.

        App Camp for Girls: Week-long summer day program where girls can put their creative powers to work designing and building apps, while learning more about the business of software

        Girls Build PDX: Girls get to explore hands-on building and trying something new, on the beautiful University of Portland campus (now in Grants Pass, too!).

        yellow scope girls in stem

        While women make up half of the workforce in the United States, they currently hold less than 25 percent of jobs in STEM fields (science, technology, engineering and math). To close this gender gap, adults must make these subjects not only cool, but also relatable. STEM careers are achievable, regardless of gender, and women have the power to build a stable, rewarding future.

        Inspiring girls to study STEM should start at a young age. However, a lasting impact requires both physical and emotional support from both parents and teachers. It’s more than what you do or say—it’s how you say it. Here are some points to keep in mind:

        MEDIA AND POP CULTURE REFERENCES

        hidden figuresLet’s face it; movies and television shows rarely depict women in STEM fields. And the few times they do, their appearance is skewed toward “geek” or “sexy scientist.”

        However, pop culture is making strides toward accurately representing women in STEM and showing more capable, confident scientists. For example, current middle or high school-aged girls might see themselves in Katherine Johnson, Dorothy Vaughn and Mary Jackson—the characters in Hidden Figures— or even aspire to be them one day. The work of Johnson and her colleagues directly contributed to John Glenn’s space endeavors.

        doc mcstuffinsYounger girls might get a burst of inspiration from watching TV shows like Doc McStuffins. The Disney Junior hit features an African-American girl named Dottie who plays veterinarian to her collection of stuffed animals. “Doc” has ignited a few fashion trends as well, most notably her white doctor’s coat and medical tools. Girls can take their Doc (and science) obsession a step further by playing online games and activities.

        HANDS-ON LEARNING

        Conducting experiments, both in the classroom and at home, gives girls the opportunity to explore and question how things actually work. Experiments encourage risk-taking and problem-solving, two skills that improve with practice.

        yellow scope kidBut rather than dictate the project, invite her to select an experiment or activity in a topic of interest. From there, ask questions: Why do you think this happened? What can you do differently next time?

        Another way to foster a love of STEM is by visiting science centers and joining hands-on exhibits. The interactive nature of children’s museums encourages discovery and exploration, all while teaching how STEM concepts exist in the world.

        MENTORING

        Along with hands-on experiments, introduce her to a successful woman currently working in a STEM field. A mentor can help transform the stereotype of the nerdy computer scientist into a more accurate representation of a STEM professional. Depending on her age, a visit to a mentor’s office or lab will paint a more accurate picture of what it looks like to be a woman in a STEM field.

        ENCOURAGE HER INTEREST IN STEM

        yellow scope girl scoutsAs parents or educators, perhaps the most meaningful action you can take is encouraging your daughter’s interest and participation in science, technology, engineering or math. With that understanding, parents must follow up with questions about math and science classes, and educators should support daily projects and foster curiosity in the classroom.  

        STEM fields hold tremendous opportunity for women at all stages of life—from childhood education through adulthood. By spurring an interest at a young age, girls have the ability to explore STEM throughout their adolescent years and affirm a lifelong passion. It’s up to parents and educators to support their endeavors and inspire the next generation of STEM leaders.

         

        scott rhodesGuest author: Scott Rhodes, Vice Provost of Enrollment

        With an 18-year background in higher education, Scott Rhodes leads enrollment and recruitment strategies for Florida Polytechnic University. His responsibilities encompass undergraduate admissions, graduate enrollment and enrollment marketing, financial aid, student records and registration and enrollment market research.

         


         ada lovelace

        THE FIRST COMPUTER PROGRAMMER

        IMAGINATION OR VISION?

        ada lovelaceImagination is fun – it’s responsible for movies, stories, and our very own daydreams. But what if what you imagined was actually a vision of the future?

        Inventors tend to think like this. They might see a wheel and invent a bicycle, or a bird and invent a plane. Ada Lovelace saw a calculator and imagined a computer!

        Think of the difference between a calculator and a computer. A calculator is useful, sure – especially in math class! But also if you’re building something like a skyscraper, doubling a recipe for baking cakes, shopping at the grocery store, or trying to get a rocket  launched into space.

        A basic calculator is great for short-cutting math problems, but it doesn’t play music, show videos, or let you draw pictures.

        Ada Lovelace imagined and understood a world of computers that was over a century ahead of her time. Let’s learn more about this famous female of computer programming.

        ADA LOVELACE (Augusta Ada Byron) (1815-1852)

        ada lovelaceAda Lovelace was born in London, the child of Lord Byron, a famous Romantic poet. However, his marriage to Ada’s mother Annabella was quick and unhappy. They separated a month after Ada’s birth, and Ada would never meet him.

        Determined her daughter would not inherit her father’s mood swings and erratic behavior, Annabella immersed Ada in education by the age of four. Particularly subjects that were full of logic, like mathematics. One of her tutors was Mary Somerville, an astronomer!

        By the time she was 12, Ada was fascinated with the idea of making a flying apparatus, and toyed with ideas of powered flight.

        SEEING THE FIRST CALCULATOR

        analytical machineAt a party when she was 17, Ada met “the father of the computer”, Charles Babbage. They talked mathematics and Babbage shared all about his ‘Difference Engine’ that he was making to do calculations. It was basically the first design of a (giant) calculator.

        Ada went to his house the next day and was able to see the thing in person. She was hooked. From then on, she and Babbage wrote letters to each other until her death at age 36.

        But Babbage was already working on another, better machine before he finished the first one. He called it the ‘Analytical Engine’, and this one could do even more difficult calculations.

        He asked an Italian engineer to write an article about it, and enlisted Lovelace to translate it from French to English.

        THE FIRST COMPUTER PROGRAM

        ada lovelace programLovelace did translate it, but had her own thoughts and comments that she added in as Notes. Her additions made the article three times longer than the original! It was published in 1843, and she only initialed it with A.A.L., for her birth name (the name we know now comes from her marriage).

        Within these Notes is the very first computer program. She explained (in Note G) the sequence of operations for how a code could be written so the machine could calculate Bernoulli numbers.

        Lovelace also mentioned that there was no reason the machine couldn’t also read codes for letters and symbols too, in addition to just numbers. She talked about how it should be able to repeat a series of instructions – something we know as ‘looping’, used in programming today.

        IMAGINING COMPUTER SCIENCE ITSELF

        ada lovelaceBut besides offering the very first computer algorithm, Lovelace saw beyond the math. She saw this ‘engine’ theoretically being able to do other functions. That it "might compose elaborate and scientific pieces of music of any degree of complexity or extent."

        Wait, a machine that could do something other than represent quantities? This was unheard of. Lovelace had just quietly invented the concept of computing.

        She said that “the science of operations, as derived from mathematics more especially, is a science of itself, and has its own abstract truth and value.” By 'science of itself' she unwittingly refers to computer science!

        She figured that sound, music, text, and pictures could made digital and even manipulated by engines such as these. This was going way beyond just the numbers.

        LATER LEGACY

        ada lovelace faster than thought bookThough her notes were published, Ada Lovelace’s visionary insights were just too big for the rest of the world to comprehend.

        It was only about a century later that a book called “Faster Than Thought: A Symposium on Digital Computing Machines” would bring them back into the limelight. This was in 1953, when computer science was just beginning to be explored.

        In the ‘70s, the US Department of Defense made a new programming language.  A Navy Commander suggested naming it ‘Ada’ in tribute. ‘Ada’ is still used today in everything from space research, to transportation, to healthcare.

        So, what do you imagine? Who knows where it could lead!